A rare breed of horse once at the centre of Nazi experiments has been recognized as a key part of plans to restore the delicate wetlands of England.
It is now acknowledged that the grazing habits of the rare Konik breed – the name meaning small horse in Polish – play a crucial part in helping to make wetlands more habitable for other species.
It’s one of the oldest animals known to man. Wild horses once roamed all over Europe and England. Now the wild Konik horse is once again grazing on the English lowlands.
They are a highly unusual breed, descended directly from the Tarpan, the wild European forest horse hunted to extinction in Britain in Neolithic times.
Tarpan survived in central Europe until the late 1800s when the last were captured in the primeval forest of Bialoweiza, Poland, and taken to zoos. The last died in 1910.
In the early 20th century, Polish scientists noticed Tarpan-coloured foals – mouse grey overall with zebra stripes on their legs and dark manes and tails – were still being born to domestic mares in herds where Tarpan had formerly ranged.
It was also noticed that they turned whiter over winter – another Tarpan trait.They selected these and back-bred them successfully over generations to recreate the extinct forest horse.
Between the two world wars, German zoo directors were supported by senior Nazi party officials such as Herman Goering in their effort to recreate these primeval horses. The Tarpan featured heavily in German folklore.
After the Nazi invasion of Poland, whole herds where stolen and transported back to Germany.
Polish scientists looking after wild horse herds managed to protect some, and after the war the protected herds were allowed to repopulate the national parks of Poland under Soviet occupation.
When the Iron Curtain fell, conservationists were at last able to transport the wild horses to national parks across Europe.
Wildwood Trust pioneered the re-introduction of these horses to Britain in 2002. It brought the first ever of their breed to arrive in southern England and these horses and their offspring have been helping to restore some of the most precious national nature reserves in the UK.
Since this time, conservation grazing projects throughout Europe have used the Konik horses for wetland grazing projects.
The former habitat of Tarpan was marshy woodland where their grazing activities help create ideal living conditions for a host of associated wildlife such as rare geese, spoonbills, bitterns and corncrakes.
At present, most of the trust’s herd are grazing at nature reserves around the county.
Wildwood Trust runs WoodlandDiscoveryPark, a visitor attraction which forms part of their strategy to save native and once-native wildlife from extinction.
Wildwood includes a forest enclosure where Konik horses retired from the trust’s main herds can spend their days, providing the many visitors with a good look at the remarkable breed.
Link: News Release
Photos: Les Willis